Topling - Paths in Second Language Acquisition

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Topling - Toisen kielen oppimisen polut



Topling is a research project of the Department of Languages and Centre for Applied Language Studies at the University of Jyväskylä. It is financed by the Academy of Finland (2010-2013) and the University of Jyväskylä. It makes use of the data and results of an earlier project called Cefling (see homepage).

The main objective of the project is to compare cross-sectional and longitudinal sequences of the acquisition of writing skills in Finnish, English and Swedish as second languages in the Finnish educational system (incl. adults).

The cross-sectional data, 1,194 samples for L2 Finnish, 3,154 for L2 English, on a variety of tasks, already exists, rated for level and coded for analyses, with similar data available for Swedish. The longitudinal data (incl. language use outside school) will be collected during this project.

The corpus can be used e.g. to better understand and predict problems in the development of writing proficiency in foreign/second languages.

Topling will be made available at

The purpose of the resource use must be outlined in a research plan.

For detailed information on the license of the resource see

More information on the corpus:

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